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Thursday, November 1, 2012

Disease, diagnosis, doctors, medicines and medical practices in Jain canons (Agam)


Large numbers of texts are found in Jain Agams about diseases, ailments, diagnosis, methods of treatments, medicines, surgery, medical practices and medical practitioners. (English Translation by Sri Surendra Bothra) Few of these texts are as follows:

Acharanga Sutra

173. Now you should observe -- those people in those clans, due to their own attitudes (as a consequence of their deeds) suffer from the following ailments --
i. Gandamala (goitre), ii. Kodh (leprosy), iii. Rajayakshma (tuberculosis), iv. Apasmaar (epilepsy), v. Kanatva (blindness in one eye), vi. Jadata (paralysis), vii. Kunitva (deformity of limbs), viii. Kubadapan (kyphosis or hunchbacked), ix. Udar-rog (gastrointestinal disorders or gastropathy), x. Mook-rog (dumbness; aphasia; aphonia), xi. Shoth-rog (oedema; inflammation; distention; turgidity), xii. Gilasini or Bhasmak Rog (over-digestion; hyperphagia), xiii. Vepaki or kampan vaat (ague; malaria), xiv. Peeth-sarpi (polio), xv. Shleepad Rog (elephantiasis), and xvi. Madhumeha (diabetes). These sixteen ailments have been stated in due order.

After this he suffers contagious, non-treatable and fatal diseases.
****

88. Know and understand (absorb) what I say. Claiming himself to be the master of medicine he (doctor) offers cure (of carnal desires). He kills, pierces, chases, displaces, and destroys many beings (for this purpose). He resolves that 'I will do what no one has done' (and indulges in violence). His patient too (joins him in violence).

What is the benefit of the company of such ignorant (the healer who employs violent methods)? He who goes for such cure is also ignorant.

An ascetic does not resort to such cure.

So I say.

Elaboration -- In this paragraph any treatment based on violence has been censured. According to Acharya Atmaram ji M. -- As in the preceding paragraphs the subject discussed is carnal desires, it is possible that this reference to treatment is in context of sexual competence and venereal diseases. To enhance his sexual enjoyment man uses various medicines, aphrodisiac and drugs like morphine. When body becomes weak and he looses his sexual competence he wants to regain and extend his potency through implants, prostheses, and other surgical methods using animal organs or medicines made thereof. For this purpose doctors and other healers indulge in violence towards animals. Thus the patient and doctor both are partners in such violence.


STHANANGA

VYADHI CHIKITSA-PAD (SEGMENT OF TREATMENT OF AILMENTS)

515. Vyadhis (ailments) are of four kinds -- (1) vatik -- caused due to disturbed vaayu (air), (2) paittik -- caused due to disturbed pitta (bile), (3) shleshmik -- caused due to disturbed kaf (phlegm) and (4) sannipatik -- caused due to combined disturbance of all the three said body humours.

516. There are four limbs of chikitsa (treatment) -- (1) vaidya (doctor), (2) aushadh (medicine), (3) aatur (patient) and (4) paricharak (nurse)

517. Chikitsak (doctor) are of four kinds -- (1) some doctor cures himself and not others, (2) some doctor cures others and not himself, (3) some doctor cures himself as well as others and (4) some doctor neither cures himself nor others. (Like a doctor there are four kinds of aspirants who cure the disease of rebirths.  -- Hindi Tika)

518. There are four kinds of men who do surgery (vran) -- (1) some doctor incises but does not clean the wound (vran-parimarsh), (2) some doctor cleans the wound but does not incises, (3) some doctor incises as well as cleans the wound and (4) some doctor neither incises nor cleans the wound.

519. There are four kinds of men who do surgery (vran) -- (1) some doctor incises but does not protect the wound by bandaging (vran-samrakshan), (2) some doctor protects the wound by bandaging (vran-samrakshan) but does not incises, (3) some doctor incises as well as protects the wound by bandaging (vran-samrakshan) and (4) some doctor neither incises nor protects the wound by bandaging (vran-samrakshan).

520. There are four kinds of men who do surgery (vran) -- (1) some doctor incises but does not administer healing medicine (vran-samrohi), (2) some doctor administers healing medicine but does not incises, (3) some doctor incises as well as administers healing medicine and (4) some doctor neither incises nor administers healing medicine.

ANTARBAHIRVRAN-PAD (SEGMENT OF INNER AND OUTER INFECTION)

521. There are four kinds of vran (wounds) -- (1) some vran (wound) has infection (shalya) inside but it is not visible on the surface, (2) some wound has infection on the surface and not inside, (3) some wound has infection inside as well as on the surface and (4) some wound has no infection either inside or on the surface.

Men are also four kinds -- (1) some man is deceitful (shalya) inside but not in appearance, (2) some man is deceitful in appearance and not inside, (3) some man is deceitful inside as well as in appearance and (4) some man is deceitful neither inside nor in appearance.

522. There are four kinds of vran (wounds) -- (1) some vran (wound) has virulent (dusht) infection (shalya) inside but not on the surface, (2) some wound has virulent infection on the surface and not inside, (3) some wound has virulent infection inside as well as on the surface and (4) some wound has no virulent infection either inside or on the surface.

Men are also four kinds -- (1) some man is evil (dusht) inside but not in appearance (appears good), (2) some man is evil in appearance (speech and disposition) and not inside, (3) some man is evil inside as well as in appearance and (4) some man is evil neither inside nor in appearance.

Elaboration -- Vran means wound. They are of two types -- (1) bahya vran (outer wound) -- the wound made by a sharped edged thing like knife, needle, thorn, glass etc. (2) Antar vran -- boil, tumour and other such inner infections that burst open.

There are two classes of wound from the angle of dravya (physical) and bhaava (mental). Wounds on the body are dravya-vran (physical wounds) and transgressions or faults in accepted vows are bhaava-vran (mental wounds). The cure of mental wounds is effected through self-criticism, self-reproach and critical review. In scriptures there is a mention of three classes of bhaava-shalya (mental thorn) -- (1) maaya shalya (thorn of deceit), (2) nidaan shalya (thorn of desires) and (3) mithyadarshan-shalya (thorn of unrighteousness).

All these quads should be interpreted both ways, physical and mental.

***

Bhagavati Sutra
Names of some diseases:

4. [3] All the following conditions to the south of the Meru mountain in Jambu Dveep are not unknown to, not unseen by, not unheard by, not forgotten by and not particularly unknown to him (Yama Maharaj, the Lok-pal of Devendra Shakra) and his subordinate gods (in other words, these conditions occur in their knowledge) -- dimb (problems like riots), ……………Kula-roag (hereditary diseases), gram-roag (village epidemic), mandal-roag (district epidemic), nagar-roag (city epidemic), shirovedana (headache), pain in eyes, ears, nails and teeth,  ……… ekantar jvar (fever on alternate days), dvi-antar (fever after a gap of two days), tijara (fever after a gap of three days), chauthiya (fever after a gap of four days), udvejak (restlessness due to separation from loved ones or theft etc.), kasa (bronchitis), shvas (asthma), shosha (debilitating fever), jara (dotage), dahajvar (fever with burning sensation), kachchha-koha (tumor or fetid sores in armpits and other such parts of the body), ajeerna (indigestion), panduroag (jaundice), arsha (bleeding piles), bhagandar (fistula of the anus), hridayashula (anginal pain), mastak-pida (migraine or cranial neuralgia), yoni-shula (vaginal pain), parshva-shula (pain in armpit or sides of the body), kukshishula (stomach-ache); epidemic in village (gram), nagar (city), khet (kraal), karbat (market), dronmukh (hamlet), madamb (borough), pattan (harbour), ashram (hermitage), samvah (settlement in a valley), and sannivesh (temporary settlement); pran-kshaya (loss of life), dhan-kshaya (loss of wealth), jana-kshaya (loss of people), kula-kshaya (loss of clan), vyasan-bhoot (bad habits), ignoble and other such acts. (3/7/4/3 )


Jnyata Dharma Katha: Dardur Adhyayan

THE HOSPITAL

                17. Nand Manikaar constructed a large hospital in the western garden. This was also as beautifully constructed as the other two (as para 14). Many healers were appointed in this hospital; these included senior and junior Vaidyas (qualified Ayurvedic doctors), senior and junior Jnayaks (those who learned and practiced the art of healing through their own experience), and senior and junior Kushals (those who practiced the art of healing purely on the basis of logical deductions). They treated many a patient including mentally sick, anaemic and weak patients. There were other nursing, cleaning and cooking staff as well as pharmacists, chemists and other helpers employed in the hospital to look after all the needs of the patients.


AILMENT OF NAND

                21. After some time Nand Manikaar was down with sixteen different ailments. They are 1. asthma, 2. bronchitis, 3. fever, 4. burning sensation, 5. infection in armpits, 6. fistula of the anus, 7. bleeding piles, 8. indigestion, 9. Glaucoma, 10. headache, 11. lack of appetite, 12. pain in the eyes, 13. pain in the ears, 14. eczema, 15. dropsy, and 16. leprosy.
                When he suffered from these ailments he called his servants and instructed, "Beloved of gods! Go and make this announcement at every corner, road, etc. in the city --
                "O Beloved of gods! Nand Manikaar is suffering from the pain of sixteen different ailments. Any Vaidya, (etc. as detailed in para 17) who is able to cure even one of these diseases will be amply and richly rewarded by him."
                Make this announcement many times and report back to me. The servants did as told and reported back.



                22. Hearing and understanding this announcement many healers (as detailed in para 17) collected their instrument boxes, honing stones, pills and other medicines, and other accessories and left their homes. They passed through the streets of Rajagriha and came to the residence of Nand Manikaar. They thoroughly examined and questioned the patient. After diagnosis they selected different methods and regimens of treatment and tried to cure the ailments one by one. The methods and processes employed are --
                1. Udvalan or application of medicinal pastes, 2. Udvartan or rubbing with medicinal pastes, 3. Snehapan or giving medicated oils, 4. Vaman or emesis, 5. Virechan or purgation, 6. Swedan or perspiring, 7. Avadahan or cauterizing with hot metal, 8. Apasnan or washing with medicated water, 9. Anuvasana or enema of medicated oils, 10. Vastikarma or common enema, 11. Niruha or to cause sweating by applying medicated oil, 12. Shiravedh or bleeding toxic blood by cutting nerveÄend, 13. Takshan or scraping of the epidermis, 14. Pravakshan or cutting of the epidermis, 15. Shiraveshta or dressing of the nerveÄend, 16. Tarpan or pouring of medicated oils, 17. Putpaak or use of cooked medicines, 18. use of medicines and other accessories of vegetable origin, and 19. use of other medicines. However, in spite of all these methods of treatment they could not cure even one single ailment.


Rogatank - Grave ailment; an ailment that causes great pain and is difficult to treat. Sixteen diseases have been listed here. Similar lists are also given in other scriptures. The list from Acharang is -- Kanth-maal (infectious parotitis or mumps), Kusht (leprosy), Kshaya (tuberculosis), Apasmar (epilepsy), Akshi Rog (eye diseases), Jadata (dementia), Heenangata (dwarfism), Kubadapan (hunched back), Udar Rog (gastrointestinal diseases), Ganjapan (balding), Sharir Shunyata (paralysis), Bhasmak Rog (hyperphagia or over eating), Reedh ki Baank (spondylosis), Shleepad (elephantiasis), and Madhumeh (diabetes). As compared to the list in Jnata Sutra this appears to be more authentic because in the former some of the diseases have been mentioned twice and some others are simple ailments.



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Vipaak Sutra

22. After some time that governor Ekadi suffered from sixteen different chronic ailments simultaneously. They are -- 1. Asthma (shvas),  2. Bronchitis (kaas),  3. Fever (jvar), 4.  Burning sensation (daaha),  5. Stomach ache (kukshi shool),  6.  Fistula of the anus (bhagandar),   7. Bleeding piles (arsh or bavasir), 8. Indigestion (ajeern),  9. Glaucoma (drishti shool), 10. Headache (mastak shool), 11. Loss of appetite (bhojan-aruchi), 12. Pain in the eyes (akshi vedana), 13. Pain in the ears (karna vedana), 14. Eczema (khujali), 15. Dropsy (jalodar), and 16. Leprosy (kusht roag).  

When he suffered from these ailments governor Ekadi called his servants and instructed, "Beloved of gods! Go and make this announcement loudly at every corner, crossings where three, four or more roads meet, main road and streets in the Vijayavardhaman borough --

'O Beloved of gods! Governor Ekadi is suffering from the pain of sixteen different ailments including asthma, bronchitis, ... and so on up to... leprosy.
Any Vaidya (qualified Ayurvedic doctors) and junior Vaidya, senior and junior Jnayak (those who learned and practiced the art of healing through their own experience), and senior and junior Chikitsak (those who practiced medicine and surgery) who is able to cure even one of these diseases will be amply and richly rewarded by the governor.' Make this announcement two or three times and report back to me.

The servants did as told and reported back.

23. Hearing and understanding this announcement in Vijayavardhaman borough many healers (etc.) collected their instrument boxes and left their homes. They passed through the streets of Vijayavardhaman borough and came to the residence of Governor Ekadi. They thoroughly examined and questioned the patient. After diagnosis they selected different methods and regimens of treatment and tried to cure just one of the said ailments. The methods and processes employed are --

1. Abhyangan or application of medicinal pastes, 2. Udvartan or rubbing with medicinal pastes, 3. Snehapan or giving medicated oils, 4. Vaman or emesis, 5. Virechan or purgation, 6. Swedan or perspiring, 7. Avadahan or cauterizing with hot metal, 8. Apasnan or washing with medicated water, 9. Anuvasana or enema of medicated oils, 10. Niruha or to cause sweating by applying medicated oil, 11. Vastikarma or common enema, 12. Shiravedh or bleeding toxic blood by cutting nerveÄend, 13. Takshan or scraping of the epidermis with knife or other such instrument, 14. Pravakshan or cutting of the epidermis using special micro-instruments, 15. Shirovasti or covering head with leather bag filled with medicated oil or other such liquid, 16. Tarpan or pouring of medicated oils, 17. Putpaak or use of cooked medicines, 18. Chhaal or medicinal use of bark of trees, 19. Mool kand or use of radish, carrot, potato and other roots, 20. Shilika or herbal medicines like chirayata, 21. Gitika or use of pills or tablets, 22. Aushadh or medicines of vegetable origin and single ingredient, and 23. Bhaishajya or other medicines with many ingredients including those of metallic and mineral origin. However, in spite of all these methods of treatment they could not cure even one single ailment. When these healers got exhausted (shraant), confused or mentally tired (tant), and disappointed (paritant) they returned from where they came. (1/1/22)

(For more detailed information about ancient art of healing refer to Tika by Acharya Shri Atmaram ji M. p. 71-73.)

***

PAST BIRTH : DHANVANTARI VAIDYA

8. Jambu! During that period of time there was a prosperous city named Vijayapur in Bharatvarsh area in Jambu continent. In that Vijayapur city ruled a king named Kanakarath. King Kanakarath had a Vaidya (Ayurvedic doctor) named Dhanvantari who was a scholar of all the eight limbs of Ayurveda (Indian science of medicine and surgery). The names of these eight limbs of Ayurveda are as follows--

(1) Kaumarabhritya -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with nursing, nutrition and cure of ailments of infants (Paediatrics).

(2) Shalakya -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with the cure of diseases of eyes, nose and other parts of the upper half of the body.

(3) Shalyahatya -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with the removal of thorns, cysts etc. or surgery.

(4) Kayachikitsa -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with the symptoms and cure of diseases in general.

(5) Jangul --The part of Ayurveda that deals with the cure for poisons or toxicity.

(6) Bhoot-vidya -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with warding off evil spirits and pacifying them.

(7) Rasayan -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with the elixirs of life and other medicines.

(8) Baajikaran -- The part of Ayurveda that deals with the medicines and tonics for maintaining and toning up sexual performance.

That Dhanvantari Vaidya had a healing touch (shivahast). He had a pious and lucky touch (shubhahast). He had a skilled touch (laghuhast). In other words he cured his patients to their entire satisfaction with his skilled handling and treatment.

9. That Dhanvantari Vaidya used to provide treatment to the queens residing in the inner quarters of king Kanakarath's palace. His patients included many kings, rich merchants, ... and so on up to ... caravan chiefs; many other weak, mentally disturbed and ailing persons with or without guardians; Shramans, Brahmins, Bhikshuks, Karotiks (Kapalik or the mendicants who carried skull), Karpatiks (mendicants in rags), beggars, and critically sick persons.

To some of these he prescribed fish-meat, to some tortoise-meat, to some alligator-meat, to some crocodile-meat, to some sunsumar-meat, and to some goat-meat. In the same way he also prescribed flesh of sheep, black-bucks, pigs, deer, rabbits, cows, and bufaloes. To many he prescribed meat of partridge, quail (lavak), pigeon, hen, and peacock. In the same way he advised for flesh from a variety of aquatic, terrestrial, and avian beings.

Not only this, that Dhanvantari Vaidya himself spent his time tasting (asvadan), eating in larger quantity or enjoyed (visvadan) and sharing (paribhojan) habitually a variety of cooked, fried, and roasted meat of fish, peacocks ... and so on up to ...aquatic, terrestrial, and avian beings. He did that with five kinds of wines.

10. Ever involved in these sinful activities, accepting these activities to be ideal of life and the best conduct, Priest Maheshvardatt acquired extremely malevolent and pain causing karmas in abundance. After completing his life-span of three thousand two hundred years, he died and reincarnated as an infernal being in the sixth hell where the maximum life span is twenty two Sagaropam. (1/7).

(English Translation by Sri Surendra Bothra)



Kalpasutra
Translation: Dr. Mukund Lath
27.          He (Harinaigameshi god) went directly to the house of Rsabhadatta in the brahmana-sector of the town of Kundagrama and came to Devananda’s room. Having espied her, he offered his veneration to Sramana Bhagavan  Mahavira and then hypnotized Devananda and her attendants into a deep sleep. He effaced from their persons the subtle particles of unholiness and showered holiness upon them. Then, after asking leave of Sramana Bhagavan Mahavira, he gently placed him on his palms and carried him to Trisala at the palace of Siddhartha, in the Ksatriya-sector of Kunda-grama. He hypnotized Trisala and her attendants into a deep sleep, and having removed unholy particles, showered holiness upon them. Then he gently placed Bhagavan Mahavira in the womb of Trisala. He then removed the child that lay in Trisala’s womb and carried it to the womb of Devananda.               
61.    He (king Siddhartha)  climbed down the foot-stool of his bed and walked down to his gymnasium. He applied himself to various wholesome exercises: such as high-jumps, athletic jousts and wrestling. When tired and fatigued, he lay down on a mat of oiled skin and was massaged with skilful dexterity by untiring masseurs. These masseurs were in the service of king Siddhartha and they were the leading men in their profession: they were thoroughly trained and accomplished experts. They were strong-limbed but had soft hands and feet. They knew all the arts of anointing, kneading and massaging the body with swinging movements so as to revitalize it. They rubbed Siddhartha with perfumed oils which had been boiled a hundred and a thousand times. With a four-fold technique of shampooing, they stimulated Siddhartha’s bones, flesh, skin and body-hair. Their massage was pleasurable, nourishing, strength-giving, stimulatingly aphrodisiacal and exhilarating to the senses and the limbs.   

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